It is anticipated that the initial discussion response should be in the range of 250-300 words. Response posts must demonstrate topic knowledge and scholarly engagement with peers. This is not the only criteria utilized for evaluation; substantive content is imperative. All questions in the topic must be addressed. Please proofread your response carefully for grammar and spelling. Do not upload any attachments. All responses need to be supported by a minimum of one scholarly resource. Journals and websites must be cited appropriately. Citation and reference must adhere to APA format and within the last 5 years Case #1: A 55-year-old woman presents to the office with bloody urine and dysuria of 12-hour duration. She was recently married and has never had similar symptoms. She denies chills and fever. On physical examination she is afebrile, has normal vital signs, and has mild tenderness in the midline above the pubis. Her urinalysis shows too many to count (TNTC) red blood cells.se What is the definition of bacteriuria? What additional history do you need to make a diagnosis? What diagnostic studies would you order and why? Case #2: A 23-year-old woman was married a year ago. Since then, she has experienced five attacks of acute cystitis, all characterized by dysuria, increased frequency, and urgency. Each infection responded to short-term treatment with trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole. The recurrences occurred at intervals of 3 weeks to 3 months following completion of antibiotic therapy. For the past two days, the woman has been experiencing acute flank pain, microscopic hematuria, dysuria, increased frequency, and urgency. Her vital signs are T = 37.9°C, P = 106, R = 22, and BP = 130/75 mm Hg. Physical examination reveals costovertebral tenderness, mild tenderness to palpation in the suprapubic area, but no other abnormalities. What are possible reasons for this woman’s pain? List possible differential diagnosis and explain each? What diagnostic tests should you order to confirm diagnosis? What are the possible causes of recurrent lower UTIs? What are the differences when comparing prerenal acute renal failure, intrarenal acute renal failure, and postrenal acute renal failure? Give examples of each. Cite current research findings, national guidelines, and expert opinions and controversies found in the medical and nursing literature to support your position. Responses need to address all components of the question, demonstrate critical thinking and analysis, and include peer reviewed journal evidence to support the student’s position. Please be sure to validate your opinions and ideas with citations and references in APA format.
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