How the pandemic has disrupted international refugee law.

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Readings:DAY 1 ALLOCATION OF READINGS DAY 1SESSION 1: The evolution of the international protection regime1. The Evolution of the International Protection RegimeHathaway and Foster, pp 1-131. International Refugee Law in the Early Years, Guy S Goodwin-GillJC Hathaway, The Law of Refugee Status (1996) chapter 1, pp 1-282. The Global Context – A System in CrisisDaniel Ghezelbash, Refuge Lost: Asylum Law in an Interdependent World (2018), Ch 2: ‘ManagingAsylum-Seeker Flows in the 21st Century’3. Australia’s ExperienceRobert Manne, ‘Australia’s Uniquely Harsh Asylum Seeker Policy – How Did It Come to This?’ ABCReligion and Ethics (November 2017)SESSION 2: Legal frameworks for protection – Non-refoulement1. Refugee Convention9. The Architecture of the UN Refugee Convention and Protocol, James C Hathaway1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees, Articles 1A(2), 33 http://www.unhcr.org/3b66c2aa10.html;2. Statelessness ConventionConvention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons (1954)OUP Handbook Chapter 44. Stateless Refugees, Hlne Lambert3. The Human Rights Treaty FrameworkOUP Handbook Chapter 11: Moving Towards an Integrated Approach of Refugee Law andHuman Rights Law, Vincent ChetailJ.H.A. v. Spain, CAT/C/41/D/323/2007, UN Committee Against Torture (CAT), 21 November 2008,available online.Aoife Duffy, Expulsion to Face Torture: Non-refoulement in International Law 92008) 20 IJRL 373.Extracts from Sir Elihu Lauterpacht and Daniel Bethlehem, The Scope and Content of the Principle ofNon-Refoulement: Opinion in E Feller, V Trk, and F Nicholson (eds) Refugee Protection inInternational Law: UNHCRs Global Consultations on International Protection (CUP Cambridge 2003)89-92; 128-34; 149-64SESSION 3: Institutional frameworks – UNHCRThis session provides an introduction to the institutional structures of the UNs refugee protectionregime. The UN High Commission of Refugees is established under a separate statute. Here weexamine the role of UNHCR and how it has expanded over the yearsOUP Handbook Ch 10: The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, JamesMilner and Jay RamasubramanyamStatute of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, UNGA,A/RES/428, 14 Dec 1950Corinne Lewis, UNHCRs Contribution to the Development of International RefugeeLaw: Its Foundations and Evolution (2005) 17 International Journal of Refugee Law 67.Alexander Betts, U.N. Refugee Agency Must Change Course or Risk Obsolescence,Refugees Deeply (6 April 2017)Michael Kagan, The Beleaguered Gatekeeper: Protection Challenges Posed by UNHCRRefugee Status Determination (2006) 18 International Journal of Refugee Law 1SESSION 4: Intersections: Refugees and Human Rights A case studyIn this topic, we will examine how UNHCR responds to mandate refugees, internally displacedpersons and other persons of concern living with disabilities. The case study invites consideration ofthe extent to which refugee law has been influenced and shaped by modern human rightsinstruments such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Rights ofPersons with Disabilities.OUP Handbook Ch 43: Protecting Refugees with Disabilities, Mary CrockConvention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Article 11.Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 37.OUP Handbook Ch 15: Regional Refugee Regimes: Africa, Marina SharpeZachary Lomo, Angela Naggaga and Lucy Hovil, The phenomenon of forced migration inUganda: An overview of policy and practice in an historical context (Refugee Law ProjectWorking Paper No 1, June 2001).UNHCR, Executive Committee, Conclusion on refugees with disabilities and other personswith disabilities protected and assisted by UNHCR EXCOM Conclusion No 110, 12 October2010 (available online)L Smith-Khan, M Crock, B Saul and R McCallum, To “Promote, Protect and Ensure”:Overcoming Obstacles to Identifying Disability in Forced Migration (2014) 27 Journal ofRefugee Studies 38-68.DAY 2SESSION 5: Alienage: The Right to Seek Asylum, Interdiction & Deflection1 A right to seek asylum?Hathaway and Foster, pp 23-49OUP Handbook Ch 48: The Right to Asylum, Maria-Teresa Gil-Bazo and Elspeth GuildOUP Handbook Ch 26: Protection at Sea and the Denial of Asylum, Violeta Moreno-LaxOUP Handbook Ch 27: Extraterritorial Migration Control and Deterrence, Thomas GammeltoftHansen and Nikolas Feith TanRefugee Convention, article 31: http://www.unhcr.org/3b66c2aa10.html;UDHR, articles 13-14: http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml;Declaration on Territorial Asylum: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3b00f05a2c.html2 Implementation of International Law in Domestic Australian LawSophie Capicchiano Young, Australias disengagement from international refugee law: The principle ofnon-refoulement and the doctrine of jurisdiction (April 2018)Plaintiff M61/2010E v Commonwealth of Australia; Plaintiff M69 of 2010 v Commonwealth ofAustralia (2010) 243 CLR 319 at 339 [27]:3 States attempts to obstruct asylum: excision, interception and push-backsCompare:Case of Hirsi Jamaa and Others v Italy, European Court of Human Rights, Application no27765/09, 23 February 2012 at [9]-[17], [70]-[82], and [113]-[158]; andCPCF v Minister for Immigration and Border Protection [2015] HCA 1; (2015) 89 ALJR 207(CPCF).SESSION 6: Refugee Status DeterminationUNHCR Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status under the 1951Convention and the 1967 Protocol: www.unhcr.org/publ/PUBL/3d58e13b4.pdfOUP Handbook Ch 31:Refugee Status Determination, Bruce BursonOUP Handbook Ch 32:Asylum Procedures, lvaro Botero and Jens Vedsted-HansenOffshore processing in AustraliaPlaintiff M61/2010E v Commonwealth of Australia; Plaintiff M69 of 2010 v Commonwealth ofAustralia [2010] HCA 41Michelle Foster and Pobjoy Jason, ‘A Failed Case of Legal Exceptionalism? Refugee StatusDetermination in Australias Excised Territory’ (2011) 23(4) International Journal of Refugee Law583Mary Crock, Shadow Plays, Shifting Sands and International Refugee Law: Convergence in theAsia-Pacific (2013) 63 International and Comparative Law Quarterly 247 280.SESSION 7: Well-Founded FearTo meet the Convention definition of refugee, a person must be able to demonstrate a well-founded fear ofpersecution. In practice, it is said that a refugees fear has both objective and subjective facets.Hathaway and Foster pp 91-181Crock & Berg, pp 366-375*Chan Yee Kin v MIEA (1989) 169 CLR 379*MIEA v Guo (1997) 191 CLR 559OUP Handbook Ch 33:Credibility, Reliability, and Evidential Assessment, Gregor NollSESSION 8: PersecutionHathaway and Foster pp 91-181Crock & Berg, pp 378-388Migration Act, s 5J*Applicant A v MIMA (1997) 190 CLR 225S395/2002 v MIMA (2003) 216 CLR 473Failure of state protectionHathaway and Foster, pp 288-331.Crock & Berg, pp 387-388Ibrahim v MIMIA (2000) 204 CLR 1Compare MIMA v Khawar (2002) 210 CLR 1 (non-state actors)Gender and persecutionUNHCR Guidelines on International Protection: Gender-related Persecution within the context ofArticle 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees,HCR/GIP/02/01 (7 May 2002): http://www.unhcr.org/3d58ddef4.htmlMIMA v Khawar (2002) 210 CLR 1DAY 3SESSION 9: The nexus requirement: The Convention groundsThe Refugee Convention requires that persecution be by reason of one of the following: race; religion;nationality; membership of a particular social group; or political opinion.By reason of:Hathaway and Foster at 362-389.Migration Act, s 91R(1)(a)Crock and Berg 388-390The five Convention groundsHathaway and Foster, 390-461Race:Crock and Berg, pp 390-391Calado v MIMA (1997) 81 FCR 450Nationality:Crock and Berg, p 392Religion:Crock and Berg, pp 392-394NABD/2002 v MIMIA [2005] HCA 29 (2005) 79 ALJR 1142Membership of a particular social group:Crock & Berg, pp 395-402UNHCR Guidelines on International Protection: Membership of a particular social group withinthe context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol relating to the Statusof Refugees, HCR/GIP/02/02 (7 May 2002)*Applicant A v MIMA (1997) 190 CLR 225*Chen Shi Hai v MIMA (2000) 201 CLR 293*Applicant S v MIMIA [2004] HCA 25 (2004) 217 CLR 387MIMA v Khawar (2002) 210 CLR 1S395/2002 v MIMA (2003) 216 CLR 473Migration Act, s 91SPolitical opinion:Crock and Berg, pp 403-405Chan Yee Kin v MIEA (1989) 169 CLR 379Applicant A v MIMA (1997) 190 CLR 225SESSION 10: Protection elsewhere: Relocation and Safe Third CountriesOUP Handbook Ch 28:The Evolution of Safe Third Country Law and Practice, Feline Freier, EleniKarageorgiou, and Kate OggInternal relocationHathaway and Foster, at 332-36138:The Internal Protection Alternative, Brd N GhrinneSZATV v MIAC [2007] HCA 40, (2007) 233 CLR 18MZANX v Minister for Immigration and Border Protection [2017] FCA 307Safe third countriesRefugee Convention art 1EMigration Act s 36(3)-(5)NAGV and NAGW of 2002 v MIMIA (2005) 222 CLR 161Migration Act ss 91M-91QDeclarations of safe countries of originMigration Act ss 91A-91GMigration Regulations, reg 2.12ASESSION 11: Exclusion Unworthy refugeesIn this session we consider who is excluded from the protection under the refugee definition (exclusionclauses in article 1F). Current issues such as the exclusion of terrorists are explored, as well as therelationship of the exclusion clauses to expulsion (art 32) and non-refoulement (art 33).Crock & Berg, ch 14, parts 2 and 31 ExclusionHathaway and Foster, 524-598Crock & Berg, Ch 14, part 3 (pp 419-422)OUP Handbook Ch 39:Exclusion, Geoff Gilbert and Anna Magdalena BentajouRefugee Convention, arts 1D, 1E, 1F:; and Migration Act, s 91TRefugee Convention, art 33(2): and Migration Act, s 91UBen Saul, Protecting Refugees in the Global War on Terror (2008) Sydney Centre forInternational Law Working Paper No. 3SESSION 12: Cessation of Refugee StatusThe Refugee Convention provides that, in certain circumstances, individuals will cease to be refugees.Hathaway and Foster 476-493Crock & Berg, Ch 14, part 2 (pp 419-422)Refugee Convention, art 1C:OUP Handbook Ch 57:Cessation, Georgia ColeUNHCR Expert Roundtable, Summary Conclusions: Cessation of Refugee Status (3-4 May 2001):(compare to QAAH)MIMIA v QAAH of 2004 [2006] HCA 53 (2006) 231 CLR 1DAY 4SESSION 13: Complementary ProtectionProtection under other UN ConventionsOUP Handbook Ch 11:Moving Towards an Integrated Approach of Refugee Law and HumanRights Law, Vincent ChetailOUP Handbook Ch 13:Customary Refugee Law, Hlne LambertOther Relevant UN ConventionsConvention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment:http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/cat.htmInternational Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/ccpr.htmSecond Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Aiming at theAbolition of the Death Penalty: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/ccpr-death.htmConvention on the Rights of the Child: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/crc.htmUniversal Declaration of Human Rights, arts 9, 14:http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtmlComplaint MechanismsCrock & Berg, ch 4, part 4 (pp. 105-108)First Optional Protocol to the International Convention of Civil and Political Rights:http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6b3bf0.htmlOptional Protocol to the Convention against Torture: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/catone.htmUN Human Rights Committee, A v Australia: Views of the UN Human Rights Committee dated 30April 1997 Communication No. 560/1993Nicholas Poynder, A (name deleted) v Australia: A milestone for asylum seekers, (1997) 4(1)Australian Journal of Human Rights 167Complementary (or subsidiary) protectionCrock and Berg, ch 14, part 4 (pp 428-431)Jane McAdam, Australian Complementary Protection: A step-by-step approach (2011) 33Sydney Law Review 686OUP Handbook Ch 46: Displacement in the context of Climate Change and Disasters, JaneMcAdamOUP Handbook Ch 47: Internal Displacement, Walter KlinSESSION 14: The Rights of RefugeesIn this session we examine the rights afforded to asylum seekers, refugees and others in need ofprotection (such as beneficiaries of temporary protection) under international, regional and national law.James Hathaway, The Rights of Refugees under International Law (Cambridge University Press,Cambridge, 2005), Epilogue: Challenges to the Viability of Refugee Rights 991-1002OUP Handbook Ch 51:Non-penalization and non-criminalization, Cathryn Costello and Yulia IoffeRefugee Convention, arts 3-34UNHCR, An Introduction to Legal Protection (2005), pp. 121-23Comparative practiceo EU Qualification Directive, arts 20-34o EU Temporary Protection Directive, arts 8-19o EU Reception Conditions Directive, arts 5-20o R v Secty of State for the Home Dept, ex p Adam [2005] UKHL 66 [2006] 1 AC 396OUP Handbook See section on regional regimes (Part III)Case study the Detention of Asylum SeekersMigration Act ss 188-197AB (see also Migration Act ss 176-187)James C. Hathaway, The Rights of Refugees under International Law, CUP, 2005, 154- 156 [PM]OUP Handbook Ch 52:The Right to Liberty, Eve LesterRefugee Convention Arts 26, 31, 33(2), and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,Art 9Crock & Berg, pp 474-494Al-Kateb v Godwin [2004] HCA 37 (2004) 219 CLR 562Ruddock v Vadarlis [2001] FCA 1329 (2001) 110 FCR 491 (see also Chu Kheng Lim (1992) 176CLR 1)CPCF v MIBP [2015] HCA 1 (2015) 255 CLR 514Detention on Australias offshore territories, and offshore processingPlaintiff M68 of 2015 v MIBP [2016] HCA 1 (2016) 257 CLR 42 (French CJ, Kiefel andNettle JJ; Gordon J (dissenting)Namah v Pato [2016] PGSC (Papua New Guinea Supreme Court)SESSION 15 Cooperation and responsibility sharingMultimedia Content: Interview with Alex Aleinikoff, discussing his new book The Arc of Protection:Toward a New International Refugee Regime1. What is refugee responsibility-sharing?Tristan Harley, ‘We Must Answer 3 Key Questions on Refugee ResponsibilitySharing’, Refugees Deeply (25 April 2018).1.2. Global CompactsGlobal Compact on RefugeesGlobal Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular MigrationJane McAdam, ‘The Global Compacts on Refugees and Migration: A New Era for Refugee Protection?’(2018) 30 International Journal of Refugee Law 5713. Regional InitiativesRefuge Lost, Ch 2, p 22-8Claire Loughnan, ‘Regional deterrence and ‘non-genuine’ refugees: The punitive legacy of the1989 Comprehensive Plan of Action’ (2019) 28 Asian Pacific Migration Journal 155.4. Proposals for further enhancing cooperationTristan Harley, Innovations in Responsibility Sharing for Refugees, World Research CouncilResearch Paper (28 May 2019)James Hathaway and Daniel Ghezelbash, ‘Theres a workable alternative to Australias asylumpolicy’ The Guardian (June 2018

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